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Raising a Wall


During the Cold War, tensions over the status of West Berlin never ceased to worry western leaders. Between 1958 and 1961, tensions increased and it seemed that Europe would soon be dragged into another war. The United States, Britain and France started to work on secret contingency plans for the defence of West Berlin. The codename was LIVE OAK. 

In this episode, we speak about how SACEUR General Norstad prepared for the defence of West Berlin. We also discuss how the crisis in Berlin put into question NATO’s nuclear posture and opened discussions about a new, ‘flexible’ nuclear response.  


HOSTS: Dr Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr Linda Risso

GUESTS: Colonel Adam Edmunds, Diego Ruiz Palmer, Dr Gregory Pedlow


NATO Declassified: The Cold War

NATO Archives Online: Military Planning for Berlin Emergency (1961-1968)

VIDEO: Background to Berlin (1962)

Three-Power Declaration on Germany, 11 May 1965

Declaration on Germany, 15 December 1966

Gregory W. Pedlow, NATO Strategic concepts, 1949-1969

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