During the Cold War, tensions over the status of West Berlin never ceased to worry western leaders. Between 1958 and 1961, tensions increased and it seemed that Europe would soon be dragged into another war. The United States, Britain and France started to work on secret contingency plans for the defence of West Berlin. The codename was LIVE OAK.
In this episode, we speak about how SACEUR General Norstad prepared for the defence of West Berlin. We also discuss how the crisis in Berlin put into question NATO’s nuclear posture and opened discussions about a new, ‘flexible’ nuclear response.
HOSTS: Stella Adorf, Alex Burnett, Linda Risso
GUESTS: Adam Edmunds, Diego Ruiz Palmer, Gregory Pedlow
NATO Declassified: The Cold War
NATO Archives Online: Military Planning for Berlin Emergency (1961-1968)
VIDEO: Background to Berlin (1962)
Three-Power Declaration on Germany, 11 May 1965
Declaration on Germany, 15 December 1966
Gregory W. Pedlow, NATO Strategic concepts, 1949-1969